Multivariable Analysis of 169 Cases of Advanced Cutaneous Melanoma to Evaluate Antibiotic Exposure as Predictor of Survival to Anti-PD-1 Based Immunotherapies


Recently antibiotic exposure has been associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing treatment with antibodies directed against programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1). We reviewed data of 1264 patients enrolled at Melanoma Skin and Ocular Tissue Repositories at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic. Reviewed data included patient demographics, prior medical history, baseline hematologic and disease parameters and outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression models were used to determine predictive markers. Overall, 169 patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma received anti-PD-1 based therapies. Median follow up was 18.46 (range 0.89 to 62.52) months. On multivariable analysis brain metastasis, higher absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and lower absolute lymphocyte count were associated with poorer PFS while brain and liver metastasis and lower albumin were associated with poorer OS. Prior antibiotics, radiation as well as age, gender, basal metabolic index (BMI), smoking status, BRAF mutation, line of therapy (first or latter), prior treatments (ipilimumab or BRAF inhibitors), hemoglobin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, white blood cell, platelet and eosinophil counts were not associated with PFS or OS in multivariable analysis. Contrary to some prior studies BMI, radiation, and antibiotics were not associated with PFS or OS.

In Antibiotics
Nick Borcherding
Nick Borcherding
Assistant Professor

My research includes systems immunology, single-cell sequencing technology, and computational frameworks.